Saturday, April 11, 2009
When we talk about business administration, we should first of all consider the administrative aspect which consists of its performance of business operations and the making or introduction of major decisions. Administration can be defined as the phenomenon of organizing individuals and resources efficiently so as to direct activities toward common aims.The word is derived from the middle English word administration , which is in turn derived from the french word administracioun .Administrator can serve as the title of the general manager or company secretary who gives reports to a corporate board of directors. This title is outdated, but, in many enterprises, this function, together with its associated Finance, Personnel and management information systems services, is what is intended when the term "the administration" is used.In some organisational analyses, management is viewed as a subset of administration, specifically associated with the technical and mundane elements within an organization's operation. It stands distinct from executive or strategic work.In other organizational analyses, administration can refer to the bureaucratic or operational performance of mundane office tasks, usually internally oriented and reactive rather than proactive.The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, the very first Business School in the United State of America, was founded in 1881. In France existed the Business School Ecole Supérieure de Commerce in Paris since 1819.Administrative functions :Administrators, broadly speaking, engage in a common set of functions to meet the objectives of the organization's . These "functions" of the administrator were described by Henri Fayol.Planning who gave an advice on what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who should do it. It maps the path from where the organization is to where it wants to be. The planning function includes establishing goals and arranging them in logical order. Administrators engage in both short-range and long-range planning. Organizing involves identifying responsibilities to be performed, grouping responsibilities into departments or divisions, and specifying organizational relationships. The purpose is to achieve coordinated effort among all the elements in the organization. Organizing must take into account delegation of authority and responsibility and span of control within supervisory units. Staffing means occupying job positions with expertise at the right time. It involves determining staffing needs, writing job descriptions, recruiting and screening people to fill the positions. Directing is leading people in a manner that achieves the goals of the organization. This requires proper allocation of resources and providing an effective support method. Directing, requires exceptional interpersonal skills and the ability to inspire people. One of the crucial issues in directing is to find the correct balance between emphasis on staff needs and emphasis on economic production. Controlling is the function that evaluates quality in all areas and detects potential or actual deviations from the organization's plan. This ensures high-quality performance and satisfactory results while maintaining an orderly and problem-free environment. Controlling includes information management, measurement of performance, and institution of corrective actions. Budgeting, exempted from the list above, incorporates most of the administrative functions, starting with the introduction of a budget plan via the application of budget controls .
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